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The Evil of the Outdoor House Cat

Posted by Richard Conniff on March 21, 2014

(Illustration: Ginette Lapalme )

(Illustration: Ginette Lapalme)

My latest for The New York Times:

Once upon a time I had a cat named Lucky, and the name fit. She turned up on our doorstep as a stray and stayed with us for 10 years, until her rather gruesome demise. (More about that later.) I liked her because she was a free spirit, and a survivor, going out for two, three, even five days, in all seasons. She’d show up when it suited her, waiting in the dark before dawn till I came downstairs and turned on my desk lamp. Then she’d make her presence known by rising up on her hind legs and gently scratching with her forepaws on my window.

Sometimes, without stopping to say hello, she’d leave us tattered offerings, with little starbursts of coagulated blood, on the front walk. The birds were disturbing, the moles and deer mice not so much.

Jane, the older woman who lived two doors down, mentioned that Lucky sometimes lurked near her bird feeder, but she didn’t seem to think much of it, and neither did we. We put a bell on Lucky, but it didn’t last a week before she shed it in some bush.

If all this sounds lackadaisical, particularly in someone who writes about wildlife, I should note that Lucky, who died in 2008, was our last outdoor cat.

We were about to become early adopters in the trend that is beginning to make outdoor cats as socially unacceptable as smoking cigarettes in the office, or leaving dog droppings on the sidewalk.

What’s driving this trend is a growing sense of alarm about the dramatic decline in wildlife, and especially bird, populations, combined with a new awareness that cats bear a significant share of the blame.

The National Audubon Society tracks 20 common North American bird species — Eastern meadowlarks, field sparrows and the like — that are now in decline. Their numbers have dropped by 68 percent on average since 1967, because of a variety of factors.

In Britain, likewise, farmland bird populations have plummeted just since 1995, with turtle doves, for instance, down by 85 percent, cuckoos by 50 percent, and lapwings by 41 percent.

If these were stock market numbers, people would be leaping from buildings. But the peculiar thing about what biologists have called “the second Silent Spring” is that people tend not to hear it.

Like a lot of other cat owners, I used to think that when Lucky went outside and, now and then, killed an animal, she was “just doing what’s natural” for a cat. I was aware that cats have caused or contributed to the extinction of 33 species. But all of those species were living on islands and many had likely never seen a predator before early navigators introduced cats. The mainland nature around me was savvier than that, I figured, and had the scale to handle incidental killings by a few house cats.

But that is no longer true, if it ever was. Intensification of agriculture is eliminating millions of acres of habitat from the countryside. The relentless development of cities and suburbs has also squeezed out wildlife, and will squeeze harder over the next few decades. Urbanized land area in the Lower 48 states is on track to more than triple between 1990 and 2050, according to the United States Forest Service. In four Northeastern states, more than 60 percent of the total land area will be urban by midcentury, up from about 35 percent in 2000.

Wildlife increasingly hangs on in the margins, in parks and on forgotten scraps of land, which function, as it happens, a lot like islands.

And wildlife in the United States must share this land with a growing population of about 84 million owned cats, and anywhere from 30 to 80 million feral or stray cats. When all of them do “what’s natural” in a fragmented natural world, it adds up.

Using deliberately conservative assumptions, federal researchers recently estimated that free-ranging cats killed about 2.4 billion birds annually in the Lower 48 states, a substantial bite out of the total bird population. Outdoor cats also kill about 12.3 billion small mammals a year — not just the proverbial rats and mice but also chipmunks, rabbits and squirrels — and about 650 million reptiles and amphibians. In some cases, they are pushing endangered species toward extinction.

But here is the number that sticks in my mind: Letting my own cat, Lucky, outdoors may have consigned as many as 33 birds and dozens of mammals to death every year. If you have ever seen a cat toy with its victim, you know these are not quick, or pretty, or painless deaths. So you might expect animal welfare groups to be ardently campaigning against outdoor cats, and particularly against the care and feeding of feral or stray cats, which do most of the killing.

Instead, these groups have mainly addressed the feral cat problem with a strategy called T.N.R., which involves trapping cats, neutering and immunizing them, and then releasing them again. Scientific studies have generally found that T.N.R. is not particularly effective at reducing feral cat colonies. The practice has also come under attack from one animal welfare group: PETA has described T.N.R. as a way for shelters to look good to donors, because they don’t have to euthanize as many unwanted cats. But given the number of birds and small mammals the released cats go on to kill, I question whether the Humane Society and other T.N.R. backers should call themselves “animal welfare” groups anymore.

None of this may sound as if outdoor cats are on the way to becoming socially unacceptable, although when birders and cat lovers start shouting at each other about outdoor cats, it can seem as if we are en route to open warfare. But the change in attitudes toward smoking didn’t come easy, either. The smoking analogy is also more apt than may at first appear because outdoor cats, like secondhand smoke, also threaten the health of innocent human bystanders.

Cats are three to four times more likely than dogs to carry rabies, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. They also share dozens of other parasites or infectious microbes with humans, including roundworms, hookworms, giardia and campylobacter. When cats live outdoors it is almost impossible to predict what they will bring home next. In Massachusetts and New York, for instance, cats recently turned up infected with a worm normally found in raccoons. One owner pulled four of them, about six inches long, through her cat’s skin, “which isn’t the best idea,” says one of the Cornell University scientists who reported the cases.

Most insidiously, outdoor cats are the primary hosts of toxoplasmosis, which is estimated to infect almost 30 percent of all humans worldwide. Toxoplasmosis produces lifelong parasitic cysts in the brain, and though it is generally asymptomatic it has been linked to neurological impairments, depression, blindness and birth defects. Even in asymptomatic individuals, the infection is associated with significant loss of memory in later life, according to a study last month in the journal Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. But I’m not really arguing that outdoor cats will become socially unacceptable because they are bad for humans. Rather, I think ardent cat lovers will eventually see that the multiple hazards of outdoor living are also terrible for cats.

And that brings me back to Lucky, and the night that her good name failed her. We never really found out what happened. But the other outdoor cat in the neighborhood, also a longtime survivor, died that same night. And the next morning a bobcat crossed right in front of my car and stopped in the middle of the road to fix me with a brazen I’m-walking-here-and-what-are-you-looking-at glower.

Most of Lucky turned up in the yard next door. Another piece was served up on the picnic table. A third, with a starburst of coagulated blood, appeared on the sidewalk, right where Lucky used to leave her offerings. I suppose it was a fitting end, in a live-by-the-sword sort of way, and for once, wildlife triumphed.

But I also know that I will never own an outdoor cat again.


45 Responses to “The Evil of the Outdoor House Cat”

  1. Richard, here is a link to a blog I wrote years ago about cats and wildlife. FYI.

  2. Nicely written. I, however, having witnessed first-hand the carnage and destruction that cats can do to any forested area; having had to stomp-to-death countless hundreds if not thousands of defenseless animals over a 15-year period that had their skins ripped off of them or gutted-alive by cats; to hush these native animals’ screeches and writhing to death; then being forced to shoot-to-death and bury literally HUNDREDS of these invasive species vermin cats (collared or not) to stop all that senseless carnage to save the lives of the few remaining native animals on my lands (cats having destroyed all of the smallest of prey up to the top predators that were starved to death, a remaining few I saved from starvation) — I do not approach this topic so “politely” anymore. (nor do I care about run-on sentences anymore, apparently)

    Here’s a copy of something I often share on any cat-site these days.

    Birds are just a minor subset of all the thousands of native animal species (billions of individual animals) that cat-lickers (criminally irresponsible cat-advocates) are annihilating around the world with their man-made invasive species vermin cats.

    Not only are these demented invasive-species house-cats-ONLY “animal lovers” now killing off all Big Cats in all wildlife reserves around the world:

    thenational D0T ae SLASH news/uae-news/big-cat-owners-warned-to-keep-them-acres-away-from-feral-strays

    And for the ultimate example of absurdity and species-conservation irony, now making all moggie-licking residents of the UK the complete laughingstocks of the whole world, they’ve already made their ONE AND ONLY NATIVE CAT SPECIES EXTINCT in the UK (the inventors of that TNR insanity) with their invasive species “moggies”:

    guardian D0T co D0T uk SLASH environment/2012/sep/16/scottish-wildcat-extinction

    “A report, produced by the Scottish Wildcat Association, reviewed 2,000 records of camera trap recordings, eyewitness reports and road kills, and concluded there may be only about 40 wildcats left in Scotland in the wild today. ‘However you juggle the figures, it is hard to find anything positive,’ says Steve Piper, the association’s chairman. ‘The overwhelming evidence is that the wildcat is going to be extinct within months.'” … “However, it is not the loss of habitat that is causing the current cat crisis in the Cairngorms. It is the spread of the domestic cat.” … “‘Essentially the Highland wildcat is being eradicated by an alien invasive species: the domestic cat.'” (report quoted from 2 years ago, they are no-doubt extinct by now)

    As well as killing off all their inland River Otters in England (and elsewhere) with their cats’ parasites:

    wildlifeextra D0T com SLASH go/news/otter-toxoplasmosis D0T html

    As well as cats’ parasites killing off all rare and endangered marine mammals on all coastlines around the world (worse than any oil-spill that has ever existed or could even be imagined):

    news D0T msn D0T com SLASH science-technology/deadly-cat-feces-killing-thousands-of-marine-mammals

    environmentalhealthnews D0T org SLASH ehs/news/hawaiian-monk-seals

    Plus these cat-licking “animal lover” psychopaths and sociopaths are also killing off all the Mountain Lions (Cougars, Puma, Endangered Florida Panther, etc.), and all other native cat species in North America:

    rapidcityjournal D0T com SLASH sports/local/feral-cats-pose-threat-to-birds-lions/article_8ec451c9-4b03-55a3-baa7-71ac577905cb D0T html

    But now these cat-lickers are even killing off rare whales and causing massive birth-defects in the indigenous Inuit people who depend on seal-meat for their very survival. Seals that were infected (and are also dying-off) from these cat-lickers’ cats’ parasites.

    Cat parasite found in western Arctic Beluga deemed infectious
    news.ubc D0T ca SLASH 2014/02/13/bigthaw/

    Let’s thank these psychotic bible-home-schooled cat-lickers for all the fine work they do for being such fantastic “animal lovers”, shall we? THEY JUST LOVE CATS SO MUCH! So caring! So thoughtful! So FULL of love for living things! So much so that they will even sacrifice whole races of humans to death-by-birth-defect to prove how much they love their cats.

    I’d love to thank them all, each with a gift of a solitary-confinement prison-cell — FOR LIFE. Better yet, for their VAST ecological crimes and sins against all of nature and all of humanity, hanged-until-dead would be a far more fitting “gift” for them AND the whole planet. That used to be the punishment for engaging in bio-warfare against the human population and all other animal life in any country. I say bring it back — special, just for them.

    • Like I said, open warfare. I may get around to deleting this because I think it drives people into a corner and makes them defensive. I’m just trying to get them to think differently about things.

      • I don’t think that you nor the vast majority of others realize what you are up against. You CAN’T make a cat-licker think differently about the issue. I tried that for 15 years. Using my best charm-the-pants-off-of-’em methods, even giving them gifts and home-baked deserts. Befriending them and asking them to do something about all their cats. FIFTEEN YEARS of that, while I was constantly lied to and deceived by them. Until one day a starving wild animal literally dragged her two remaining starving cubs right to my very door — the mother so starved that she couldn’t even make milk for her cubs. And I looked around that day and all I saw were cats, every day, every week, every month. There was NO OTHER WILDLIFE ON MY LANDS. Just their vermin cats.

        When a wild animal drags their own offspring right to your door to help them, that was final straw. (They survived, by the way, and went on to help in the wildlife re-population efforts of mine.) I told all the cat-lickers in the area that their cats were now going to be shot to death. They called the sheriff. He told me right in front of them that I had every right to shoot all of their cats on my lands, to start shooting and don’t stop until every last one of their cats was dead and buried. So I did. And get this, they heard all their other cats being shot to death, THEY STILL DIDN’T CARE, they did nothing to reign in their remaining cats. On top of that, they even kept adopting more of them to let roam free to get shot to death. This is why it took two seasons to shoot every last one.

        I got rid of every last one of hundreds of these MAN-MADE INVASIVE VERMIN cats where I live. Cat-lickers are no longer any problem at all where I live — going on OVER 4 years now. No stray cats, no cat-lickers causing any problems at all. Not ONE peep from them. Why is that? They have no outdoor cats with which to manipulate everyone anymore — all gone, shot-dead and buried. And if they do try again to let more roam free, that cat gets shot as soon as it is spotted off of their lands. THEY KNOW THIS. It’s why they don’t even bother trying anymore.

        I only use online cat-lickers now as my little ignorant online show-‘n-tell puppets. To prove to everyone in the world, beyond any doubt in the universe, that no matter how much we try to educate them, reason with them, beg with them, plead with them, argue with them; that it will solve NOTHING toward the worldwide ecological disaster that THEY created and are hellbent on perpetuating. The ONLY thing that works is ignoring every last thing that these morons spew to others, and then giving back to them the EXACT SAME amount of respect and consideration as they have shown to all other life on earth — ABSOLUTELY NONE.

        Just destroy every last one of their free-roaming cats. Then and only then will the problem that they created be solved. They CAN’T be part of the solution because THEY ARE the problem!

        They only use their cats like little animal sacrifices to try to control and manipulate everyone in the world around them. These manipulative and inhumane cat-licking freaks don’t give one sh** how any cat dies or they wouldn’t let them roam free in the very first place. This is why they don’t give one damn if their cats get ran over by cars, attacked by other cats or animals, or die any other way. And if VERY VERY LUCKY their cat will be humanely shot-to-death — that is by-far the MOST humane death that any of their stray cats will ever hope to have.

        This really isn’t about cats at all. They only use their cats to try to control and ruin everyone else’s lives on the planet, animal and human. Little self-victimization control-freaks, nothing more than that. Sociopaths and psychopaths to their very cores.

        You only have to ignore every last thing these deranged invasive species advocates are spewing to the world. That’s the most important part. Asking them for advice and help to solve the problem that THEY created and are hellbent on perpetuating is just as foolish as asking your local career thieves for their advice and help to hide your valuables from their daily motives, goals, and activities.

        Once their furry little tools to manipulate everyone are no-more, they don’t have even 1 of 4 legs to stand on — about anything. Nothing to complain about. Nothing to manipulate others with anymore.

        GAME OVER!

      • p.s. I still think your article was very well written. 🙂 But it will do nothing to change the behavior of cat-lickers and their cats. That’s reality.

      • BTW: In case you are curious — the term that I use of “cat licker” is justifiably and accurately gleaned from the growing fad of people who are obsessed with cats and want to do everything possible to make their cats feel good at the expense of all that is reasonable and sane.

        They are now licking their cats clean.

        youtube D0T com SLASH watch?v=p9xmiOxsTWg

        It’s just another one of the many aberrant and mentally-ill behaviors of “cat lickers”.

        I cannot, in all good conscience and honesty, EVER use the term “cat lover” again to describe these heartless and spineless cretins. People who love cats do not throw them under the wheels of moving cars, let them lap-up antifreeze in a gutter, being eaten from the inside-out by parasites, or force them to attack one another to fight-to-the-death for territory by letting their cats roam free. (One of the main selling points of TNR: forcing their cats to fight-to-the-death for territory. Absolutely NO different than people who run criminal dog-fight rings to see who wins. Both just as guilty of animal abuse. There are many laws in place that make it a highly punishable crime to force ANY domesticated animals to fight each other for their very survival.)

        “Cat Lover” is an extremely oxymoronic label.

        “Cat Licker” is the only one that accurately works today.

      • Shawn said

        Richard, Woodsman is wrong that you can’t change anyone’s mind or get someone to think differently or just be a little more open to something. You saying that you just wanted people to think differently is fair, and you definitely gave me food for thought. Though, honestly titling it, the “EVIL of the Outdoor Housecat” is probably not going to win you much INITIAL sympathy from the pro-cat camp, most of whom have a cat that stayed by their side for weeks while they were bedridden or has done some other wonderful thing that makes it a part of the family. It’s no different than the way people love their dogs. So, if you do just want to open up the discussion and not make people defensive, you have to know that vitriol such as Woodsman’s harms your cause.

        The Jeffrey McKinnon op-ed points were interesting too. Point 2 is particularly poingant.

      • Shawn: Writers don’t get to choose the headlines on their articles, as a rule. In this case, I was just picking up the headline my editors at the NY Times chose. I might have called it “The Menace of Outdoor Cats.” RC

      • You don’t need to be defensive. You just need to keep your cat indoors before someone like me shoots it to death. Is this too far beyond your comprehension levels?

        And pandering to Richard with your typical underhanded manipulation tactics to try to get my posts deleted only proves what I know about your kind all along.

        Censorship: the very last bastion of any completely failed and disproved religion. You’ve got no other way to prove me wrong, but censorship. That’s only proves I’m 100% correct about every last one of you useless cat-lickers.

    • Lawrence Pinsky said

      Woodsman, you are a very ill and misguided individual.

      • And yet my lands are 100% free of cats going on over 4 years now. And my lands have nicely repopulated themselves with nearly a thousand different native species that cats had annihilated during their 2 decades infestation on my lands. And *I’M* the “very ill and misguided individual”? LOL!!!

        Do you realize what a joke you’ve made yourself out to be?

  3. I came across a couple of interesting points in an op-ed sent to me by its author, Jeffrey S. McKinnon, a biologist at East Carolina University in Greenville, NC:

    1. Researchers working in California have found, surprisingly, that where coyotes are more abundant, bird diversity is higher.How could a predator cause numbers of potential prey to increase? The researchers’ explanation is that the coyotes often eat slightly smaller predators which, in turn, pose a greater threat to birds. They argue that feral and pet cats are especially important and indeed there is a good deal of evidence that coyotes like to eat cats. In that study, 21 percent of the coyote scats they collected contained cat remains.

    2. One problem with pet cats and food-supplemented feral cats is that they need not go hungry after killing all the prey in an area. In nature, predators that greatly reduce prey numbers starve, allowing the prey to recover. But when predators have their food supplemented by people, their hunting can continue all the way to prey extinction. I don’t think very many of us believe that is a good idea.

    • I applaud your efforts in researching this problem more fully, but even those wildlife “experts” are not fully aware of the whole problem. They’ve missed a key factor of animal communication methods.

      I first tried to rid my lands of cats by hand-rearing native predators (to also repopulate my lands after I found out they had all but disappeared due to starvation-by-cat). Thinking that these native predators could oust the cats for me. It was a failure (in regards to them helping in the least, even highly amusing at times).

      Please read this post (of mine), URL below, that fully explains why humans cannot and should not rely on nature to solve this man-made ecological disaster for them. The government of Australia made a similar error with their attempts at increasing Dingo populations which did nothing to curtail cats’ breeding rates. I alerted them to how and why their experiment failed, having discovered this man-made anomaly on my own lands years ago. Not only will native predators not solve the problem, but they end-up dying in the process from all the diseases that cats carry and spread today.

      neighbors D0T denverpost D0T com SLASH viewtopic.php?source=phpbb_art_viewall&t=22154584#p2781776

      p.s. Congrats on getting your article in the NYTimes. Not that it’s going to change anything. Only ONE thing changes cats living outdoors — making them ALL dead.

      nytimes D0T com SLASH 2014/03/22/opinion/sunday/the-evil-of-the-outdoor-cat D0T html

  4. Hi Richard,

    I enjoyed your article. I think there is, perhaps, a bigger killer of birds and other wildlife and it’s LAWNS. The craze for green carpets comes at the cost of much reduced habitat plus a great deal of herbicides, insecticides, and other toxins. Have you done anything about lawn, by chance?

    Thanks for your thoughtful postings.

  5. Shawn said

    Interesting essay. I’ve often questioned whether to keep my spayed cat in or let her out for the few hours a day that I do, since she occasionally brings home a gift of a hummingbird, a lizard tail or a grasshopper. Aside from the fact that she is miserable and insistent when I keep her in and there are many predators such as coyotes, bobcats and mountain lions near here, I was always told growing up, “a cat is, in essence, a wild thing and has got to be free.” You’ve given me food for thought. I’d like my cat to have a long life, and I’d certainly like to spare the animals.

    That said, could we please address the elephant in the room? In your piece, you placed much of the blame for the reduction of wildlife on cats, which, because of their increasing numbers, are decimating wildlife populations that have been forced into an ever-shrinking habitat. Hang on! Think about that. What’s the cause of that?

    “Intensification of agriculture is eliminating millions of acres of habitat from the countryside. The relentless development of cities and suburbs has also squeezed out wildlife, and will squeeze harder over the next few decades. Urbanized land area in the Lower 48 states is on track to more than triple between 1990 and 2050, according to the United States Forest Service. In four Northeastern states, more than 60 percent of the total land area will be urban by midcentury, up from about 35 percent in 2000.”

    With that come more cats; I get that. But the root cause of the decline is not cats but people, and I think you shouldn’t have glossed over it. We need to have better policies to control and guide our growth in order to combat the problem. Right now, we’re having a drought, the habitat and water sources for predators is limited because we encroach, and they are starving. They’ll eat anything (or try): dog, cat, garbage, rabbit, ground nesting birds (or those sipping nectar from low flowers), snake, livestock, mountain bikers. And we blame them.

    One glaring example of our habitat destruction is something that Greg Gorman noted – lawns, ornamentals and hybrids. I try to encourage all my neighbors to kill their lawns and convert their yards into mini habitats by planting all locally native species such as I have. The plant-native movement has a long way to go, but it is gaining steam here in California.

    To Woodsman, I can only say that I hope in your zeal to wipe out any despised cat you come across, collared or not, you will consider that a collared cat is a loved pet and a member of someone’s family. The least you could do is look at the tag and contact the family to let them know what happened to their pet so they will not agonize over not knowing, waste time posting flyers and ads, canvas the neighborhood, talk to all the neighbors within a mile, lose their voices from calling out, visit shelters every other day for weeks or months and dry little Suzie’s tears again and again. This would be a simple kindness.

    • A collared cat that is within range of someone’s car-wheels or gun is a “loved pet and member of someone’s family”, eh? That’s just more cat-licker’s manipulative BULLSHIT. I’ll look for a tag when they put up a flyer that there’s a $5000 reward. Otherwise none of you are worth one minute of my time, just as you keeping your cat safe wasn’t worth even one minute of your time. (btw: I encourage everyone to plant Lilium species of flowers or common N. American Day-Lilies to repel your invasive species cats for you, it repels them one time, nobody ever sees your cats again. A perfectly natural way to rid our lands of cats that didn’t evolve with this deadly plant toxin that kills cats ONLY.)

      People who let cats roam free should also be investigated by Family-Services & Social-Services if they have any children. If people see their cats as family members, and then let them roam free to be hit by cars, lap up antifreeze in gutters, or get killed by animal attacks; this does not bode well for them being responsible for ANY other lives in their care.

      Are they going to tell their toddlers to go play in the freeway and then blame the cars for their children’s deaths too?

      Not long ago a toddler died in a waterway after the parents let it wander off on its own, the parents blamed the water.

      No doubt their very own children are just as expendable as their “family” cats.

      Someone who lets cats roam free are showing signs of being incapable of responsibly taking care of ANY other lives. They need to be investigated for all facets of their lives. Children need to be removed from the homes of any and all such criminally-negligent and criminally-irresponsible caretakers for the children’s own safety.

      On top of that, they don’t even care about the safety and well being of anyone else in the world. Do you know how many fatalities and lifelong debilitating injuries have been caused by vehicular accidents from people trying to avoid hitting a free-roaming cat? There needs to be a new bumper-sticker: “SAVE A LOVING FAMILY OF 4 — FLATTEN A CAT”

      Free-roaming-cat-advocate = 100% certifiable sociopath/psychopath.

      • As for crying little Suzie,

        Perhaps cat-owners should learn the distinction between being a responsible pet-owner and a criminally irresponsible one. If not, too bad. The rest of the world is not their pet’s baby-sitter. A highly destructive INVASIVE-SPECIES pet at that. That’s THEIR job to keep their pet from harm lest they be held criminally responsible for animal-abandonment, animal-neglect, animal-endangerment, animal-cruelty, and invasive-species laws. Let them explain to their child why their criminally irresponsible behavior got their cat killed by road-kill, environmental poisons, died from a cat or animal attack, or was trapped and drowned, or shot by someone who is more respectful and responsible about their world than the criminally irresponsible cat-owner. Maybe in that lesson in explaining the death of their cat to their child that the parent too will grow up into a socially responsible, respectable, and respectful human as well one day. Though I wouldn’t hold my breath waiting for that to ever happen.

    • Let me address the human population issue.

      While it is true that overpopulation of humans is the #1 problem that we and all other species face today (humans are a classified as a “weedy species”, but they ARE NOT an “invasive species”, please educate your sorry-a**ed bible-home-schooled selves); this still doesn’t excuse all the responsible, wise, and intelligent people from stopping all the ecological disasters caused by those phenomenally stupid and criminally negligent people who should have never been born in the very first place. (You know, all those astoundingly stupid and ignorant cretins — JUST LIKE YOU.)

      Cats are a man-made (through selective breeding) invasive species. And as such, cats being a product of man, are no less of a man-made environmental disaster than any oil-spill, radiation-fallout, chemical-spill, or other environmental disaster _caused_by_man_. Cats are not exempt from being removed from every natural environment, wherever and whenever they are found away from supervised confinement. Just as you would destroy Burmese Pythons and African Cichlids in every habitat where they exist in N. America. They started out as pets too. Many of our destructive invasive species pests started out as PETS discarded by criminally-irresponsible humans. Guess what happens to all those other non-native pets that became destructive invasive species? They are destroyed on-site by any means possible — no questions asked — none required.

      Cats are even worse than a multi-continent-sized oil-spill. They not only kill off rare marine-mammals along all coastlines (just as oil-spills do) from run-off from the land carrying cats’ Toxoplasma gondii parasites, they also destroy the complete food-chain in every ecosystem where cats are found. From smallest of prey that is gutted and skinned alive, wasted for cats’ tortured play-toys, up to the top predators — starved to death from cats destroying their ONLY foods. (Precisely what cats caused on my own lands not long ago.) They destroy everything that moves. They will even destroy native vegetation by destroying those animals that are pollinators or act as seed dispersers for those plants (as many rodent and bird species do) or those acting as plants’ pest-control. Cats can and will wipe out whole ecosystems — animal and plant.

      Cats need to disappear from all natural habitats PERMANENTLY, eventually, somehow. And the sooner the better. They are breeding out of control at an exponential rate. The reason for “sooner the better” is that you can only hope you can halt the problem before it is beyond the reach of any method you eventually choose. Luckily, I caught the problem in time where I live (by humanely shooting and burying every last cat I saw, hundreds, collared or not, totally LEGAL). Though I had plenty of native predators (owls, fox, hawks, etc.) available in surrounding non-cat-infested areas that eventually repopulated my lands so as to not cause any explosions of unwanted species and further imbalance. (I estimate that about 1 returning or 1 never-seen-before native species have been populating my lands PER DAY for the last 4 years since every last cat is gone. That’s a LOT of species that cats destroyed or starved-to-death during their 2 decades infestation on my lands. People who have cats around have no idea just how bereft and empty their lives have truly become.) It seems nobody else is faring as well. Their time is being wasted by cat-lickers stopping them from doing the right thing. Asking or listening to any deranged invasive-species advocate for advice on how to clean up the ecological disaster that they created and perpetuate is about as useful as asking your local career thieves for advice and help to hide your valuables from their daily motives and activities. Ignore anything they might say and you too will solve the problem where you live. They ARE the problem, they cannot be part of the solution.

      It worked 100% where I live. I’ve not seen even ONE cat for over 4 years now. (Also totally disproving that cat-lickers’ “vacuum effect” lie and myth.)

  6. oldbaleine said

    I have a different point of view about this topic, but see no point in trying to express it above “Woodsman” belligerent screaming.

  7. Shawn said

    Woodsman, you needn’t be so hateful and make assumptions. When you behave in such an extraordinarily angry and aggressive manner, you lose all credibility. You’re so busy insulting everyone that any valid arguments you have get overlooked. I say this sincerely and without malice: you may wish to consider therapy.

    • You may wish to keep your cats in your homes before someone like me who has seen the devastation that they caused and still cause and will now gladly clean it all up with inexpensive .22s and a shovel solves your problem for you the very same way. If you have a free-roaming cat, your neighbors are already thinking about you like I do, and they have been for years. Your cats’ lives hours are numbered now.

      • (Re-stated after proofreading. I type 130+wpm and sometimes hit enter before I check what I’ve typed — leaving behind a stream-of-thought word-string.)

        You may wish to keep your cats in your homes, before someone like me who has seen the devastation that they caused and are still cause will now gladly clean it all up with inexpensive .22s and a shovel — solving your problem the very same way.

        I guarantee you, if you have a free-roaming cat your neighbors are already thinking about you like I do, and they have been for years. Your cats’ lives’ hours are numbered now.

        Addendum: You won’t solve it, now it’s time for everyone else to repair the damage that YOU are perpetuating — in the most affordable and humane method to destroy 90 million to 150 million cats that you and all your kind have left lying around. That comes to over 1 person per USA household this year that will have to shoot a cat to get things under control. And that’s just for the present feral-cat populations. If you add-in cats’ breeding rates for this year alone, I discovered that at least 31 cats will be have to shot to death, per year, by EVERY human alive in the USA of legal age that can use a firearm. Each person who can legally hold a gun would have to shoot far more than 31 cats per year to start to reverse their breeding rates. Are you starting to comprehend the disaster that you and all just like you have caused? You worthless waste of human flesh.

    • PSA: The time is now …. Half-Past Kill-Kitty O’Clock …. Do you know where your cat is?

  8. Lawrence Pinsky said

    Sorry, Richard. Not great research on this one and very self-interested poor research on the part of organizations who put out these ridiculous claims. Most of the British research has been discredited. The U.S. research, like the British, has faulty data and is constructed by birding and related organizations. PETA, whom I generally support, simply doesn’t support the consumption of any meat and felines are carnivores. PETA has a very poor record when it comes to companion animals. They ought to stick to factory farming. Take a look at the following. It underlines the irony in your mention of Silent Spring. TNR? It hugely reduces the number of feral cats but there’s still enough around to control the rat and mouse population, their main job. No, I don’t support letting out pet cats, but mainly for their own health reasons. “Outdoor” cats live an average life of about 5 years. Indoor cats about 15 nowadays. Please begin to see the other side of the equation:

    • See Richard? Just like I told you and everyone else. No matter how much we try to educate them, try to reason with them, even beg with them and plead with them — IT WILL DO NOTHING TO CHANGE THEIR BEHAVIOR AND VALUES. They will continue to destroy all life on earth with their cats.

      That’s why they are only good for my little online show-‘n-tell puppets now. To prove to EVERYONE in the world, beyond any doubt left in the universe, that the only thing that will solve this problem is to ignore every last thing they might ever spew to anyone in the world, and just start shooting and hygienically disposing of every last one of their outdoor disease-infested invasive-species vermin cats.

      It worked where I live! 100%. I’ve not seen even one cat for over 4 years now. 🙂

      BTW: Here’s another good TNR facts site that was put up not long ago. I just ran across this a few days ago.

      There are tomes of links and information there that give to everyone the clearest picture of all of what TNR is really all about and what these TNR advocates do to everyone’s lives on the planet. Everyone involved in TNR might be particularly pleased with the photos there of what their loving euthanasia by “attrition” truly looks like.

    • Hey Lawrence? Can you spell “HOAX” & “FRAUD”?

      These TNR cat-lickers (criminal outdoor-cat-hoarders) who re-spew all the highly manipulative and deceptive lies and misinformation of Alley-Cat-All-Lies didn’t do their due-diligence research.

      Here’s the very first link that any of their followers and supporters should have checked out.

      bbb D0T org SLASH charity-reviews/national/animal-protection/alley-cat-allies-in-bethesda-md-107/financial

      They don’t even meet the criteria to qualify for being a reputable charity organization under “Better Business Bureau” standards. While Becky and all her close friends are laughing all the way to the bank to the tune of $5M in assets with a $6M income.

      They all flew to Hawaii not long ago for another “cat-conference” because, for some unknown reason, they had to be there to discuss these issues. (I wonder how many cats could have been saved from freezing to the pavement this last winter from the price of all their flights and lodging and luxurious food, drink, and entertainment in Hawaii? But these TNR group-leaders were so warm and having so much fun! Can you blame them?)

      For another good laugh check out how much Becky and her friend pay themselves with everyone else’s money.

      bbb D0T org SLASH charity-reviews/national/animal-protection/alley-cat-allies-in-bethesda-md-107/governance-and-staff

      They have now been launching some damage-control with their new “Future Five” program to prove to everyone their true and trustworthy intentions. Awarding a princely $5,000 grant to some deserving group. $5,000 is only 0.1% of their assets, 0.08% of their yearly income. They might as well just sh** in the face of every last fool that ever donated to them. LOL

      Support yet another organization that exploits and perpetuates the suffering of animals for their own personal financial gain, then try to sleep well at night.

      This is even more “rich”. I recently discovered that anyone who posts a request for financial help on Alley-Cat-All-Lies Facebook pages is then referred to this page of theirs: alleycat D0T org SLASH economy

      Not ONE LINK on that page refers to getting actual financial help from Alley-Cat-All-Lies themselves. And even more rich, their very first resource that they send people to, to feed their feral cats, is a national food-bank organization where people donate food to feed needy humans. They are taking the food out of the mouths of needy human infants to feed their diseased vermin cats.

      I don’t think I’ve seen a sadder and more sorry case of “charity” in my whole life before this.

      … This just keeps getting more “curiouser and curiouser”. Donna Wilcox, Vice President and Chair of the Board of Directors of “Alley Cat All-Lies”, may not even be who she claims to be.

      She was only an office-administrator at D.C.’s office of “Natural Resources Defense Council”. No doubt just to learn about her opposition to her warped and ecologically destructive and twisted beliefs. (For she certainly proved to know nothing about biology and ecology by what she is doing. E.g. If they believe these cats are a natural part of the environment and deserve to be out in nature, then why are they even bothering to sterilize them? Their agreement to sterilize them is their very agreement that they don’t even belong out in nature in the very first place. Stupid, ignorant, hypocrite much?)

      She also claims to hold a B.S. in biology from a “Notre Dame College” in South Euclid, Ohio.

      In fact, if you do a Google search on (include quotes): “notre dame college” “south euclid” “donna wilcox”, it comes up empty. Except of course at “Alley Cat All-Lies” where they allow her to make this claim.

      Did she even graduate from elementary-school? No matter what combination of search-strings I use I can’t find any evidence of her holding any type of degree at all; nor having any formal education in any school system anywhere — only that which she claims about herself on social-media bio pages.

      Is anyone from Alley-Cat-ALL-LIES who they claim to be?

    • The TNR CON-GAME

      FACT: Trap & Kill failed because cats cannot be trapped faster than they exponentially breed out of control.

      FACT: Trap, Neuter, & Re-Abandon (TNR) is an even bigger abject failure because these man-made ecological disasters cannot be trapped faster than they exponentially breed out of control, and they also continue to cruelly annihilate all native wildlife (from the smallest of prey up to the top predators that are starved to death), and the cats continue to spread many deadly diseases that they carry today — FOR WHICH THERE ARE NO VACCINES AGAINST THEM. Many of which are even listed as bioterrorism agents. (Such as Tularemia and The Plague — Yes, people have already died from cat-transmitted plague in the USA. No fleas nor rats even required. The cats themselves carry and transmit the plague all on their own.)

      FACT: THERE IS ABSOLUTELY _NOTHING_ HUMANE ABOUT TNR. Nearly every last TNR’ed cat dies an inhumane death by road-kill, from cat and animal attacks, environmental poisons, starvation, dehydration, freezing to death, infections, eaten from the inside-out by parasites, etc. And if very very lucky humanely shot to death or re-trapped and drowned (the two most common methods employed on all farms and ranches to protect their gestating livestock’s offspring and valuable native wildlife dying from cats’ Toxoplasmosis parasites). This doesn’t begin to count the thousands of defenseless native animals that cats skin alive and disembowel alive for their daily and hourly play-toys. And pitting cat against cat to fight-to-the-death for territory is ABSOLUTELY NO DIFFERENT than those who run criminal dog-fight rings to see who wins. They spend YEARS in jail. IT IS A HIGHLY PUNISHABLE CRIME TO FORCE *ANY* DOMESTICATED ANIMALS TO FIGHT EACH OTHER FOR THEIR VERY SURVIVAL.

      FACT: The only difference in destroying cats immediately and humanely instead of trapping, sterilizing, then releasing them to an inhumane death and forcing them to fight-to-the-death for survival; is that money isn’t going into Becky Robinson’s Alley-Cat-All-Lies pocket, or an HSUS or SPCA board-member’s pocket, veterinarian’s pocket, cat-food company CEO’s pocket, or a drug-company CEO’s pocket. And that’s the ONLY difference! Support yet another organization that exploits and perpetuates the suffering of animals for their own personal financial gain, then try to sleep well at night.

      FACT: These manipulative, deceptive, and deceitful TNR proponents are now clipping cats ears ONLY. WITHOUT vaccinations nor sterilizing them. They do this to save money and protect their outdoor hoarded cat colonies from being trapped and euthanized by the state because the clipped-ear shows officials that they have been sterilized and vaccinated. Why pay $140 for each cat and all that time when just a trap and a simple snip of scissors on each one can also protect their hoarded cats from being destroyed? (I have absolute proof of this.)

      FACT: Cats are a man-made (through selective breeding) invasive species. And as such, are no less of a man-made environmental disaster than any other caused by man. Cats are even worse than an oil-spill of continent-sized proportions. They not only kill off rare and endangered marine-mammals along all coastlines from run-off carrying cats’ Toxoplasma gondii parasites, they destroy the complete food-chain in every ecosystem where cats are found. From smallest of prey gutted and skinned alive for cats’ tortured play-toys, up to the top predators that are starved to death from cats destroying their ONLY food sources. (Precisely what cats caused on my own lands not long ago.)

      FACT: Hunted To Extinction (or in this case, extirpation of all outdoor cats) is the ONLY method that is faster than a species like cats can exponentially out-breed and out-adapt to. Especially a man-made invasive species like these cats that can breed 2X-4X’s faster than any naturally occurring cat-species.

      FACT: In _FOURTEEN_YEARS_ Alley Cat ALL-LIES branch of NYC have only reduced feral cats in their own city by 0.08% to 0.024% (as the months go on that percentage becomes more insignificant), allowing more than 99.92% to 99.976% to exponentially breed out of control. Here’s how Alley-Cat-ALL-LIES’ deceptive math works: If you TNR 4 cats and 3 get flattened by cars this translates to 75% fewer feral-cats everywhere. Alley Cat ALL-LIES of NYC can’t even reduce cats in their own city, yet they promote it as a worldwide solution. Then even bigger fools fall for it and promote it.

      FACT: When researching over 100 of the most “successful” TNR programs worldwide, JUST ONE trapped more than 0.4%. Oregon’s 50,000 TNR’ed cats (the highest rate I found) is 4.9% of all ferals in their state. Yet, by applying population growth calculus on the unsterilized 95.1% they will have trapped only 0.35% of all cats in their state sometime this year. Less than 0.4% is a far cry from the required 75%-85% to be the least bit effective.

      FACT: Their mythical “vacuum effect” is a 100% LIE. A study done by the Texas A&M University proved that any perceived “vacuum” is just the simple case that CATS ATTRACT CATS. Get rid of them all and there are no cats there to attract more. I proved this myself by shooting and burying hundreds of them on my own lands. ZERO cats replaced them FOR FOUR YEARS NOW. If you want more cats, keep even one of them around, more will find you. That university study also found that sterilized cats very poorly defend any territory. Non-sterilized cats, being more aggressive, take over the sterilized cats’ resources (shelter & food if any). If there is any kind of “vacuum effect” at all, it is that sterilizing cats cause non-sterilized cats to restore the reproductive void.

      FACT: During all this investigation I have discovered something that is unfaltering without fail. Something that you can bet your very life on and win every last time. That being — IF A TNR CAT-HOARDER IS TALKING THEN THEY ARE LYING. 100% guaranteed!

    • Lawrence: Show me your three best peer-reviewed scientific studies showing that TNR works. Regarding the U.S. study I cite, cat lovers routinely say it has faulty data, but never seem to come up with valid studies to the contrary.

      • The ONLY studies they cite are that if they TNR 4 cats and 3 get flattened by cars, this translates to 75% fewer feral cats everywhere. Not ONE of their studies goes beyond the territory of their isolated colonies. Alley Cat All-Lies have now produced a counter argument to your NYTimes article. Showing the few colonies that had reductions (probably from people poisoning all their cats for them). NONE of the cases they cite take into account the cat-populations of the surrounding areas outside of the isolated colonies, where people continually dump cats because TNR advocates teach everyone that it’s okay to dump their unwanted cats. Some fool will feed their cat for them.

    • p.s. If you think that cats make good rodent control, think again.

      Your myth about cats being good rodent control has been disproved on every island where cats were imported to take care of the imported rodents. Hundreds of years later and there’s nothing but a thriving population of cats and rodents — all the native wildlife on those islands now either extinct or on the brink of extinction — even those native species which are better rodent predators than cats (such as many reptiles and shrews which destroy rodents right in their nests), the cats having destroyed them directly or indirectly. And I bet you think of yourself as educated.

      The rodents reproduce in burrows and holes out of the reach of cats, where they are happy to reproduce forever to entertain cats the rest of their lives, and make your own lives miserable, on into infinity. On top of that, when cats infect rodents with cat’s Toxoplasma gondii parasite, this hijacks the minds of rodents to make the rodents attracted to where cats urinate. (Google for: Parasite Hijacks The Mind Of Its Host)

      Cats actually attract disease-carrying rodents to where cats are. The cats then contract these diseases on contact with, or being in proximity to, these rodents. Like “The Black Death”, the plague, that is now being transmitted to humans in N. America directly from cats that have contracted it from rodents. Yes, the plague is alive and well and being transmitted by cats today. Cats attracting these rodents right to them further increasing the cat/rodent/disease density of this happy predator/prey balance. It has been documented many many times. The more cats you have, the more rodents and diseases you get.

      Cats DO NOT get rid of rodents. I don’t care how many centuries that fools will claim that cats keep rodents in-check, they’ll still be wrong all these centuries. Civilizations of humans have come and gone in great cities like Egypt, yet their cats and rodents remain in even greater pestilent numbers.

      No cat population anywhere has ever been able to control rodents effectively. But native predators can — easily.

      Keep deceiving yourselves.

      • Sorry, Woodsman, I’m going to cut off your comments at this point, to give other people a chance to speak.

      • Lawrence Pinsky said

        Good idea. Clearly he has nothing but time on his hands and he’s incapable of civil discourse. I’ve read the American studies, Richard, and they talk about “billions” of animals supposedly killed by cats, yet they don’t give any good data on what % of the population that represents and they carefully don’t look at other environmental factors and habitat loss. I had been involved in TNR for over 10 years and to blanket those efforts as all negative is completely absurd, Woodsman’s ludicrous comments aside. TNR clearly can reduce cat populations in urban environments. Let’s remember again that all the “negative” studies have been done by organizations with self-interest. Now that I’ve had a good look at your resume, I can see you are of the same ilk and are not a real “journalist” who weighs all sides of a matter. Rather, you are a good writer who produces essays primarily, subjectively focused. It is you that needs peer review. The latter is something I’ve been doing for over 30 years in journalism. I wish I had the time to deconstruct your piece, but I don’t. It’s very disappointing in terms of lacking in any balance.

      • R.C. No problem, I totally get that. 🙂 But let me leave you with one last comment, because everyone is focusing on the numbers of animals killed by cats.

        If even ONE individual native animal is destroyed by a clearly invasive species and that invasive species has shown a predilection for destroying that native species when left to its own, that invasive species has already sealed the fate of all of its kind — DEAD.

        Are you going to count how many Emerald Ash-Borer Beetles there are and compare them to how many Ash forests have been devastated by them before you take effective measures against that beetle and destroy them as fast as you can?

        It’s not about numbers of individual animals, it’s about an INVASIVE species that has been clearly proved to destroy NATIVE species. THOUSANDS of native species being destroyed in the case of this ONE invasive species cat. It’s not just one species of tree they are destroying if they were an insect and would clearly be an instant call to destroy them all. If cats were destroying just ONE native species, that too would seal their fate — TO BE 100% CONTAINED OR MADE DEAD.

  9. This is the problem whenever I ask TNR proponents to show me the evidence. They resort to personal attacks, and they offer anecdotes in place of proper experiments.

  10. Good job, Richard.

    • Thanks, Cathi

      • I am a besotted cat lover and have long agreed with everything you’ve written. This has turned out to be a post of my own.

        It’s unloving, illogical, uninformed, and misguided to believe that domesticated cats need to go outside for any reason whatsoever.

        Indoor cats are happier, healthier, and more attached to their humans than outdoor cats. Indoor cats become as attached to their humans as dogs. Some even learn how to fetch!

        Living outside may have been natural for cats once, but no longer. Cats are not “happier” being let outside and do just fine living an indoor existence, just like any other domesticated animal. In fact, they do better as indoor-only pets than, for instance, birds and reptiles.

        Never have a single indoor cat, however. Always have two or more. Contrary to the belief that domesticated cats are anti-social loners, cats are highly social, especially with humans. They get bored and lonely alone and do better with fellow-cats to socialize and play with.

        It always takes an adjustment period when a new cat is brought into the home, as cats are territorial, but once they accept another cat as a part of their “family” they are happy to have the cat friend. And the games they play! It’s delightful to watch.

        People let cats out only because it is traditional, and think that that is the way to treat them. Well, few of us have barns with grain to protect any more.

        Outside cats are in danger of catching illnesses from other cats such as the deadly FIV, not to mention the human-transferable toxoplasmosis, fighting with other cats and being attacked by dogs which can cause severe injury and death, and being eaten by wildlife themselves such as coyotes, which is very, very common.

        Now that outdoor cats are also causing environmental damage, there should be a larger movement to spread the word:
        keep domesticated cats indoors.

        Cats can be taught not to dash for the door every time it opens if one is firm and consistent regarding not letting them out. A little shoo-ing goes a long way. Cats are smart. They get the idea. But let them out even once in a while and their attempts to circumvent your protection will never extinguish.

        If one can’t let go of the idea of cats being able to go outside, put them on a leash and walk them as one would one’s dog. Not the best solution for the cat, but perhaps the best one for people who insist on thinking of cats as outdoor animals.

        Of course, if one does this, one must continue to be ready for that cat-dash for the door ever time it opens and a lot of chasing one’s cats outside, shoving oneself through scratchy bushes and climbing trees, to bring one’s cats back home and safe.

        House cats are domesticated pets, not wildlife themselves.

        Think how many fewer feral cats there will be when people start to love their cats enough to keep them inside, not to abandon them to nature, thinking that that is acceptable.

        Existing feral cats need to be brought under the protection of a roof, not treated so callously as to trap, neuter, and release them. How cruel. And as we’ve found, that does no good as far as reducing feral cat populations. It merely reinforces the behavior of cat abandonment in humans.

        So does “humane killing” due to overpopulation, by the way. Free state-paid spaying and neutering is the answer to overpopulation, not kill-shelters or TNR.

        Treating cats and dogs as throw-away objects rather than fellow sentients to love, treat well, and keep safe doesn’t help them in any way.

        Nor does it make humans any wiser.

      • When you vote to have the government subsidize my aquariums and terrariums, pay for my stamp-collections and coin-collections, pay for my children’s barbie-doll collections and train-sets, then I’ll vote to pay for the cost of one of your hobbies too. Owning a cat is not a right, it is not a requirement of being alive, IT’S A HOBBY. If YOU can’t pay for all the costs incurred in that hobby, then FIND A DIFFERENT HOBBY. I’m not about to pay for your own irresponsibility and then your manipulating everyone else into paying for it for you. I.e., “If you don’t pay us to get our cats fixed, we’re going to unleash this highly destructive invasive species vermin into all your yards, onto all your lands, to destroy everything in their wake and make your lives even more miserable forever!” Nice sales-tactic of yours.

        (Aside: Not unlike their other “sales tactic” where they cry that we’re all going to die of the plague if we don’t let them act as criminally negligent pet-owners. They’ve since shut-up about that since I proved that the exact opposite could come to pass, from all the deadly cases of cats transmitting the plague to humans in the USA today. Yes, the plague is alive and well and being spread from cat to human now. People are dying from it. Google it.)

        I bought 5,000 rounds of .22s on a close-out sale, with plenty left-over in case someone in the area wants to start up their cat-hobby ever again. Even $0.003 spent on any one cat is too much as far as I’m concerned, but that’s all that I’m willing to pay to “fix” YOUR cat for you. I shouldn’t be forced to pay even that much, but since you won’t pay to “fix” your cats, then I will do it for you in the most humane and cost-effective method on earth. And not one 1/3rd of a cent more than that — unless I miss, which is not likely. Everyone’s free-roaming cats taught me and proved to me that I had a hidden skill as an expert-marksman. I never knew that, having never hunted anything before being forced to eradicate every last one of hundreds of cats in my area. (Thanks cat-lickers!)

        (Sorry Richard, I had to say this.)

  11. […] Richard Conniff […]

  12. You want some examples of where TNR has worked? These are from peer reviewed journals-so not as easy to read as the science light and editorial articles that are typically referred to in these sorts of forums.
    Read: Hughes and Slater. 2002. JOURNAL OF APPLIED ANIMAL WELFARE SCIENCE, 5(1), 15–28


    McCarthy, Levine, Reed. Estimation of effectiveness of three methods
    of feral cat population control by use of a simulation model JAVMA, Vol 243, No. 4, August 15, 2013

    A very good article that shows that TNR will work if rates of capture are high (so if there are bounded areas/ where margins can be controlled by vigilant TNR efforts (like college campuses) it works. But, TVHR works best.–for reasons that are clear in this peer reviewed article.

    & M. Stoskopf and Nutter (2004 ) Analyzing Approaches to the Feral Cat Management: One Size Does Not Fit All. JAVMA 229 (5)

  13. Luke Weil | Curious

    The Evil of the Outdoor House Cat « strange behaviors

  14. al bundy big uns magazine

    The Evil of the Outdoor House Cat « strange behaviors

  15. […] The Evil of the Outdoor House Cat […]

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